Orthodontics is a type of dentistry that corrects teeth and jaw alignment problems using devices such as dental braces (fixed appliances), plates and headgear. Orthodontic treatment is often recommended to correct problems such as a protruding lower jaw, protruded upper teeth (buck teeth) or crooked and crowded teeth. Early intervention and treatment is often preferred to prevent more serious problems from developing.
Endodontics is that branch of dentistry, concerned with the morphology, physiology, and pathology of the human tooth, and in particular the dental pulp. Endodontists perform a variety of procedures including endodontic therapy (commonly known as "root canal therapy"), endodontic retreatment, surgery, treating cracked teeth, and treating dental trauma. Root canal therapy is one of the most common procedures. If the dental pulp (containing nerves, arterioles, venules, lymphatic tissue, and fibrous tissue) becomes diseased or injured, endodontic treatment is required to save the tooth.
A periodontist is a dentist who specializes in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal disease, and in the placement of dental implants. Periodontists are also experts in the treatment of oral inflammation. Periodontists often treat more problematic periodontal cases, such as those with severe gum disease or a complex medical history using the latest techniques for diagnosing and treating periodontal disease.
Prosthodontics is the discipline pertaining to the diagnosis, treatment planning, rehabilitation and maintenance of oral function, comfort, appearance and health of patients with clinical conditions associated with missing or deficient teeth using biocompatible substitutes. Prosthodontics involves the use of crowns, bridges, veneers, dental implants and dentures.